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For Vettius Valens ca. I t contained a number of horoscopes which, if ,l Vitruvius, de architcctura, 9, 6, 2. Rose suggested that Achinapolos should read Athenodoros, a Stoic, but our three best mss. MB rit. IV , publ. Schaumberger, ibid. Boll-Bezold-Gundel: Boll, RE , 11, ; c.

Anthologiac, ed. K ro ll: , 27; compare , In this text the name of Critodemus occurs first on They have, however, been computed by O. Neugebauer and stem from the years a. One, the Horasis V ision , was composed in the popular form of this type of hellenistic literature. Like most hermetic writ ings the Horasis purported to reveal a divine visionary message. It was mentioned as late as the fourth century a. An earlier suggestion that he was a contemporary of Seneca and thus lived in the age of Nero a. Epigenes of Byzantium. The ascription may be of long standing.

F o r an extant synkephalaiosis of a work of Critodemus lists a chapter on horoscopes which presumably would be the source of Vettius Valens Critodemian horoscopes; Cat. Unfortunately, however, the horoscopes in the Anthologiac, supposedly taken from Critodemus' work, have shown themselveson computation by O. Neugebauerto refer to constellations which occurred only about three hundred years atfer the time of Critodemus. On the mystic tendencies of the work, com pare F. Cumont, Le mysticisme astral dans lantiquite, Bullet.

Paris, gr. K ro ll; for Rhetorius see Cat.

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On various aspects of Critodemus theories, see F. Neugebauer, The exact scicnccs: Cumont, R E , 2, c. R E , 11, c. Boll, Sphaera: , Leipzig, Teubner, Kroll, R E , suppl. This date has been arrived at largely on evi dence that he was apparently a younger contemporary of Apollonius of Mvndus. They did not normally lend themselves to popular usage with suffi cient ease to survive in other but fragmentary form.

Other important fragments of early Greek texts have reached us without the name of their authors. Works of this kind included for example the most popular astrological handbooks of antiquity. The fictitious, usu ally Egyptian, names of their authors, assigned to a hoary past, fanned the dispute about the priority of Mesopotamia or Egypt as the cradle of scientific as trology. An educated layman like Pliny bypassed the question by simply recording that some considered Atlas, others Mesopotamian, still others Egyptian sages as the inventors of astrologia, but scholars would never be satisfied with such a pragmatic approach.

The priority of Mesopotamia, once unchallenged, came to be con tested in Hellenistic times, and especially in the Roman era. The hermetic literature pouring out of Egypt after the beginning of the third century b.

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There may still be surprises ahead of us in regard to the dis covery of such early Hellenistic texts, but funda mentally the Mesopotamian priority claim seems even more definitely established today than in antiquity. That Seneca, quacst. R E , ,6: c. Rehm also ascribes the spreading of Epigenes teachings to Posidonius ca. D iels: f. Reimer, Pliny speaks of Atlaos. On hermetic astrol ogy in general compare Scott, Hermes Trismcgistos, esp.

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Gabalda et Cie editeurs, ; and together with A. Nock his French translation of philosophical hermetic texts 2 v.. Paris, Moreover these demotic papyri relied on computation from tables, not on actual observa tions. Altogether, in spite of some recent agitation to the contrary. There can be no denying, on the other hand, that in Hellenistic times the importance of Egypt as a center of astrological studies far exceeded that of Meso potamia. The raging debate whether for example one of the most influential astrological manuals of Hellenistic times was of Mesopotamian or Egyptian origin, may 1 The influences of Sothis [i.

Sirius] If it rises illustrate the controversy. The text in question is a when the moon is in Sagittarius;. The inundation will come to Egypt. If it [Sothis] rises when Jupiter is in Sagittarius: The correct. An enemy A longish fragment possibly related to the Salmeschwill be [his and] he will escape from them again. Many niaka and perhaps a second one of this type was men will rebel against the king.

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An inundation which is found about half a century ago. Seed and grain will be high as to price in money, which is. The primi The burial of a god will occupy in Egypt. Gundel in particular was a valiant champion of Egypt men will rebel [against the king of] Egypt in the country of the Syrian. The king will proceed to them 10 with in this battle. Neugebauer, The exact sciences: He will fight.

The sky abundant with rain will The problematic nature of this work is debated in several not be able to [occur] in the country of the Syrian 11 writings of F. Boll, for instance in his Salmeschoiniaka. A nfrage , Zeitschrift fuer aegyptische Sprache 39, f. Bezold in Eine neue end of this year.

The Kuhn geuridmet: Breslau, ; compare Pieper in whole earth will. The royal art of astrology: f. Kroll, [ in money. If it [Sothis] rises [when the sun] is in Sagittarius.

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R E , suppl. Gundel, Dekane: 86 and n. L'Egyptc des astrologues, , 19 The king of Egypt will do.

The character of these post-zodiacal astrological tenets is strongly reminiscent of the much earlier prezodiacal Mesopotamian hemerological or star-omen forecasts. The above demotic text, although written during the principate, still was wholly devoid of any reference to O. A demotic astrological text. S c a r Eastern Studies 10 4 Oct. The papyrus is in the Egyptian museum at Cairo pap. Cairo Hence the many lacunae. D ekane: The date suggested on page 92 in a stemma is conjectural and apparently much too early.

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Grenfell and H unt, 3, ff. Boll in A. Griechische Papyri aus Oxyrhynchus, 44; Sudhoff, Iatromathematisches auf Papyrusblaettern, Archiv fuer die Geschichte der Naturziissenschaftcn 11, : ff. Gundel, D ekane: f.